Jews in Lędziny

Traces of Jewish life in Lędziny

  • 1769 - at this time, a Jew called Marek Szynkierz was running an inn in Lędziny;
  • 1920 - Isidor Siechner, a Jew, was running an inn on Smardzowice area;
  • 1920 - Karol Berger, a Jew, was running an inn at this time;
  • 1920 - Karol Rosner was running an inn;
  • 1920 - at this period a Jew called Heinemann Schaal from Hołdunów (or Heimann / Hermann) was running a butcher shop (see below);

Heinemann Schaal's House

Former Jewish butcher shop; today, a fish shop. The house is located beside the present Hołdunowska 11 Street (GPS: N 50.142478°, E 19.130335°):

Heinemann Schaal's House

Synagogue

The house of prayer in Lędziny was established at the start of the 20th century in Adolf Weissmann’s inn in the downtown beside former intersection of Myslowitz Straße (Mysłowicka Street; currently Lędzińska Street, before that was Wolności 2 Street and Katowicka Street), Plesserstraße (Pszczyńska Street; former 1 Maja Street, nowadays Lędzińska Street) and Jaroschowitz Straße (Jaroszowicka Street; Kontnego Street today). After Weissmann had gone to Germany, the house was closed down in 1924, and then was bought by The "Piast" Coalmine (Piastschaächte, former Heinrichsfreude). The house was torn down in the mid-'90s. Currently on this place there is a roundabout (GPS: N 50.128103°, E 19.105578°).

Synagoga w Lędzinach

Synagoga w Lędzinach

Synagoga w Lędzinach

Synagoga w Lędzinach

Synagoga w Lędzinach - mapka

Legend:

  • 1 - former The Toll Collection Point (Walenty Hachuła's house since 1930; in '60 the street was called Wolności 1);
  • 2 - Synagogue / Weissmann's inn / the first post office in the town (funded in 1880);
  • 3 - The Mayor House (Paul Spyra's house);
  • 4 - Paul Haśnik's inn;
  • 5 - The Convent of Boromeuszki nuns;
  • 6 - former parsonage (The Municipal Public Library nowadays);
  • 7 - The Post Office no. 1;
  • 9 - former school (currently a health centre);

Lager Glückauf

The camp was established in the district Hołdunów in 1940 (today it is an area located on the corner of Grunwaldzka Street and Gwarków Street, former Imielińska Street; GPS: N 50.14896°, E 19.146797°). Jews were imprisoned here and forced to build a new Berlin-Moscow highway. Later, Italians took place of Jews. Today, there are no tracks of the camp. It is significant that the name "Glückauf" means "God bless you / Good luck":

Lager Glückauf 2012

Lager Glückauf 2012

Lager Glückauf 2012

Lager Heimat / Lager Günther I

In early 1943, the Nazists built labor camp "Heimat" for Polish prisoners. A year later Poles were moved to another camp, and at this point the Nazists created a sub-camp of the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp. This new camp existed from February 1944 to July 1944 and was called "Günther I" because Jews were forced to build a new "Günthergrube" (The "Ziemowit" Coalmine nowadays). Apart from that, some Jews have worked at old "Piastschächte" (called "Heinrichsfreude" before 1925) and others have built new sub-camp "Günther III" beside "Günthergrube" under construction.

The obelisk commemorating the victims of the camp was erected by crew of The "Piast" Coalmine in 1964 and is located beside Paderewski Street (near Primary School no. 1), where was the path to camp "Günther I" (GPS: N 50.126837°, E 19.113759°). Below this place in the '60s:

Günther I - Obelisk

The same area in 2012:

Günther I - Obelisk

Günther I - Obelisk

At the back of the obelisk, there is a path leading to the buildings, behind which was the former entrance to the camp:

Günther I

Günther I

The camp was located in front of this school:

Günther I

View from the school to the east where was the camp:

Günther I

Günther I

On this place there was "Günther I" camp (GPS: N 50.128218°, E 19.113665°):

Günther I

Günther I

Lager Günther III

The camp construction was completed in the summer of 1944. Jews were imprisoned in the camp until January 18, 1945. During this period, they were forced to work on the construction of "Günthergrube" (The "Ziemowit" Coalmine today). Much of the buildings has been preserved to present day in good condition. Currently, the site of the camp is a fish factory (GPS: N 50.120248°, E 19.124426°):

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

This is the authentic camp wall:

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

This is the authentic camp barrack:

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

Günther III

Scheme:

Mapka

Legend:

  • 1 - barrack for the SS guards (no longer exists);
  • 2 - food store;
  • 3 - clothing store;
  • 4 - barracks for prisoners;
  • 5 - hospital for prisoners;
  • 6 - boiler and steam (no longer exists);
  • 7 - kitchen (no longer exists);
  • 8 - probably the guardhouse, offices and barracks for the SS guards (outside the camp); in the '90s there was a seat of The Schola Nostra Foundation;
  • 9 - today, there is a middle school ("Gimnazjum nr 1");
  • 10 - today, an ambulance services and a health clinic;
  • 11 - the "Günthergrube" sites (The "Ziemowit" Coalmine area nowadays);

Literature:

  • Tadeusz Iwaszko, Podobóz Günthergrube, [w:] "Zeszyty Oświęcimskie" 1970, zeszyt 12, ss. 113-120.
  • Rafał Bula, Świadkowie cierpienia i śmierci w Lędzinach 1939-1955. Obozy i podobozy podczas wojny i po wojnie, Lędziny 2011, passim.

See also: